Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Neurophysiological and Evolutionary Theories of Learning Essay In the study of learning, learning theories are categorized into paradigms or schools of thought based on viewpoints shared by scientists that provide a framework for research. Three of the major paradigms of learning theories include the cognitive paradigm, the neurophysiological paradigm and the evolutionary paradigm. The first paradigm is referred to as cognitive because theorists place their emphasis on the cognitive nature of learning. According to Hergenhahn and Olson (2005), the second paradigm is called neurophysiological because it attempts to isolate the mental and physiological correlates of things such as learning, perception, thinking and intelligence. The third paradigm is termed evolutionary because theorists attempt to explain learning processes based on an organisms evolutionary history. DiscussionThere are several theorists whose ideas are predominately cognitive. Theses theorists include the Gestalt psychologists Kurt Lewin and Kurt Koffka, as well as Jean Piaget, Edward Chace Tolman, and Albert Bandura. Wertheimer, Kohler and Lewin were founders of the Gestalt movement. According to Hergenhahn and Olson (2005), Gestalt theorists believed that we experience the world in meaningful wholes and do not see isolated stimuli but stimuli gathered together into meaningful configurations (p. 264). Kurt Lewin proposed a field theory of human motivation. He believed that behavior and cognitive processes are determined by various psychological facts that a person is consciously experiencing. The psychological facts are interdependent and any change in one can affect all the others, therefore influencing our behavior. Kurt Koffka, another Gestaltist falling under the cognitive paradigm defined the law of Pragnanz in Gestalt Theory. The law of Pragnanz states that, all mental events tend toward completeness, simplicity, and meaningfulness (Hergenhahn and Olson, 2005, p. 473). Followers of Gestalt theory used this law as a guiding principle when studying learning. Another cognitive theorist was Jean Piaget. Jean Piaget contributed several theories including intelligence, schemata, assimilation and accommodation, and interiorization. According to his theory of intelligence, intelligenceÃ is any act that creates optimal conditions for the organisms survival under the existing circumstances (Hergenhahn and Olson, 2005 p. 295). Intelligence effects how one adapts to the ever-changing environment. In Piagets schemata theory a persons schema is a cognitive structure that allows a person to act and respond to the environment. A schema can be either overt or covert behavior. The theory of assimilation explains how a person can respond to the environment using existing cognitive structures. The theory of accommodation explains how an organism adapts to the environment by modifying cognitive structures. Piagets concept of interiorization is described by Hergenhahn and Olson (2005) as the gradual decreased dependence on the physical environment and the increased utilization of cognitive structures (p. 299). Through this process, organisms can respond to more complex situations by thinking about them. Edward Chace Tolmans ideas were also predominately cognitive. He believed that organisms develop a mental picture of the environment which he referred to as a cognitive map. The cognitive map develops when mental expectations are confirmed by experience. When an organism is faced with a problem, it utilizes the cognitive map and chooses the best solution requiring the least amount of work according to Tolmans principle of least effort that will result in satisfaction. Albert Bandura, another cognitive theorist suggested that behavior is learned through observation. He theorized that learning is influenced by four processes. The first process, the attentional process, involves the observer attending to the model. The second process is called the retentional process. This process involves the observer retaining the information gained from the observation by storing it cognitively. The third process is the behavioral production process which requires the learner to have the physical capabilities or behavioral abilities to perform what is learned. The final process, the motivational process provides incentives that motivate the learner to actually perform what has been learned. Bandura also theorized that peoples behavior is also determined by reciprocal determinism. Hergenhahn and Olson (2005) summarize Banduras concept of reciprocal determinism by stating that, behavior, the environment, andÃ people (and their beliefs) all interact (p. 349). Falling under the neurophysiological paradigm is the theorist Donald Olding Hebb. Some of his theories included that of restricted environments, enriched environments, cell assemblies, phase sequences, and sensory deprivation. In Hebbs theory of restricted environments, Hergenhahn and Olson (2005), explain that if an environment lacks stimulation or experience, it can have a negative impact on the growth and development of nervous system. A restrictive environment can disrupt normal intellectual and perceptual development. In contrast, an enriched environment full of stimulation and experience can enhance development. Hebb also believed that each environmental object we experience stimulates a complex pattern of neurons called cell assemblies (Hergenhahn and Olson, 2005, p. 379). The cell assemblies provide the basis of a thought. When cell assemblies become interconnected they form phase sequences. Phase sequences allow us to have streams of thoughts. According to Hergenhahn and Olson (2005), Hebb concluded in his theories that not only is sensory information necessary for proper neurophysiological development, but it is also necessary for the maintenance of normal functioning (p. 384). When an organisms experience sensory deprivation, severe cognitive disorientation, stress and fear can occur. Hebb believed that the environment had a direct effect on mental and physiological processes which influenced behavior and learning. The final paradigm is the evolutionary paradigm. Attempting to explain the learning process using evolutionary principles was the theorist Robert C. Bolles. Hergenhahn and Olson (2005) state that Bolles believed that learning involved the development of expectancies (p. 425). Expectancies are when an organism learns that one event leads to another. Bolles believed that organisms had innate predispositions for behavior and that motivation restricts response flexibility. Hergenhahn and Olson (2005) explain that an organisms natural reaction in a situation may make it difficult to learn a new response. Using the niche argument, Bolles argued that an understanding of learning must be accompanied by an understanding of the evolutionary history of the organism (Hergenhahn and Olson, (2005), p. 427). According this argument, organisms have to learn certain behaviors that they areÃ predispositioned for and not learn others depending on their niche and how they fit in the big picture. This can determine whether the organism is successful or not in adapting to its environment. Conclusion Although learning theorist in the various paradigms have attempted to explain learning and its processes, many questions are still unanswered. One of these questions is how does learning vary as a function of maturation? If learning occurs differently in different stages it would be beneficial to conduct research on how maturation affects the learning process. The information yielded from such research could be very beneficial in regards to education. Another unanswered question is how does learning vary as a function of species? If some organisms have the biological ability to learn certain behaviors and some do not, how can research involving different species be beneficial? If psychologists want to learn more about the learning process in humans, they should study humans rather than making generalizations across species. Other questions that remain unanswered involve learning and personality characteristics, learning as a function of the total environment, learning and associations, as well as learning and instinctive behavior. It is imperative that more research be conducted in an attempt to answer these questions about learning to give people a greater comprehension of learning. The more knowledge we have about the learning process and what affects it, the better we will be at making learning successful. References: Hergenhahn, B.R., Olson, M. (2005). An Introduction to Theories of Learning. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
William Jobling We have been exploring the true story of William Joblings tragic life. He was a miner from Jarrow in Newcastle, who in 1832, whilst on a miners strike, was falsely accused of the murder of a local magistrate called Nicolas Fairles. The real murderer was Ralph Armstrong, one of Joblings best friends and fellow miner. The stimulus came from a plaque that accompanied a statue of William Jobling in Jarrow. All improvisations came from that initial stimulus. As the stimulus was about a time long ago, and of a topic I was unfamiliar with, mining, I thought it would prove to be difficult. This story provides lots of interesting and exciting stimulus for drama through its various themes such as friendship, despair and betrayal. My group chose to follow the themes of comradeship, poverty, deceit, despair and friendship. These themes are especially evident in parts of the plot where the following characters and relationships are presented: Comradeship must have played a vital part in Joblings life when everyone agreed to go on strike. People like Armstrong and Hepburn, the leader of the strike, must have displayed comradeship to agree or to devise such a venture. So we decided our first scene would be around the fabricating of the strike. Times must have been hard when the miners were on strike and no money was coming in to the households. Jobling's and other miners' wives and families must have suffered from poverty at these times. Our second scene was to be an informative improvisation about these hardships. To leave your best friend to blame for a murder you committed is extremely deceiving. Deceit... ... went to plan. Everyone was mature and played their part well. It proved to them that making an effort does count. My only disappointment was the lighting in the murder scene. I had planned that every time Armstrong struck Fairles, there would be a blackout then the lights would return. The synchronising of this was bad and didn't give the effect we wanted. If I have learnt anything from this piece, it would be that using your rehearsal time wisely is essential in producing a high quality play plus it doesn't take years off your life in worry. I would also make it clear to other people in my group, that if they weren't prepared to put in sufficient effort and compromise then they would have to find another group as I didn't enjoy having to make all the decisions and trying to motivate people who couldn't care less. William Jobling Essay -- Papers William Jobling We have been exploring the true story of William Joblings tragic life. He was a miner from Jarrow in Newcastle, who in 1832, whilst on a miners strike, was falsely accused of the murder of a local magistrate called Nicolas Fairles. The real murderer was Ralph Armstrong, one of Joblings best friends and fellow miner. The stimulus came from a plaque that accompanied a statue of William Jobling in Jarrow. All improvisations came from that initial stimulus. As the stimulus was about a time long ago, and of a topic I was unfamiliar with, mining, I thought it would prove to be difficult. This story provides lots of interesting and exciting stimulus for drama through its various themes such as friendship, despair and betrayal. My group chose to follow the themes of comradeship, poverty, deceit, despair and friendship. These themes are especially evident in parts of the plot where the following characters and relationships are presented: Comradeship must have played a vital part in Joblings life when everyone agreed to go on strike. People like Armstrong and Hepburn, the leader of the strike, must have displayed comradeship to agree or to devise such a venture. So we decided our first scene would be around the fabricating of the strike. Times must have been hard when the miners were on strike and no money was coming in to the households. Jobling's and other miners' wives and families must have suffered from poverty at these times. Our second scene was to be an informative improvisation about these hardships. To leave your best friend to blame for a murder you committed is extremely deceiving. Deceit... ... went to plan. Everyone was mature and played their part well. It proved to them that making an effort does count. My only disappointment was the lighting in the murder scene. I had planned that every time Armstrong struck Fairles, there would be a blackout then the lights would return. The synchronising of this was bad and didn't give the effect we wanted. If I have learnt anything from this piece, it would be that using your rehearsal time wisely is essential in producing a high quality play plus it doesn't take years off your life in worry. I would also make it clear to other people in my group, that if they weren't prepared to put in sufficient effort and compromise then they would have to find another group as I didn't enjoy having to make all the decisions and trying to motivate people who couldn't care less.
Monday, January 13, 2020
The Dream Deferred Ã¢â¬â A Comparison Kristy Andrews Axia College of University of Phoenix In Lorraine Hansberry's play A Raisin in the Sun, the author reveals a hard-working, honest African-American family struggling to make their dreams come true. Langston Hughes' poem, Harlem, illustrates what could happen if those dreams never came to fruition. Together, both Hansberry and Hughes show the effects on human beings when a long-awaited dream is thwarted by economic and social hardships. Each of the characters in A Raisin in the Sun has a dream for which they base their whole happiness and livelihood on attaining. However, the character of Lena Younger, or Mama, differs from the other members of her family. Time after time, Mama postpones her dream of owning a house and garden to perpetuate the dreams of her family members. Finally, when Mama receives the $10,000 insurance check, she feels that her dream can become reality, and purchases a house in Clybourne Park. Her dream Ã¢â¬Å"drys up like a raisin in the sunÃ¢â¬ when she learns that Walter gave the money to Willy Harris, who mysteriously disappears. Mama does not shatter simply because her dream has not been fulfilled. Lena Younger's strength of character has come from the steadfast endurance of hardship and a refusal to be conquered by itÃ¢â¬ (Phillips 51). Mama's economic hardships may have killed her dream, but she has not allowed it to kill her. You can feel the desperation not only in the poem but also through the character of Mama as you read the passages of the poem and story. The symbolism of Ã¢â¬Å"the dreamÃ¢â¬ in A Rai sin in the Sun is equal to the symbolism used in the poem by Hughes. In the story, we see what can happen to a dream that is deferred, which is what the poem speaks directly about. The social inequality which the Younger's encounter also does not hinder Mama's compassion. Mr. Lindner temporarily shatters Mama's dream of owning a home when he comes to the YoungerÃ¢â¬â¢s prepared to give them money to move from Clybourne Park. The derogatory use of Ã¢â¬Å"you peopleÃ¢â¬ by Mr. Lindner has little to no effect on Mama's steadfast decision to move to Clybourne Park. Mama's dream of a house simply modifies. She does not care that the house is located in a neighborhood where there are no colored people. Mama concerns herself only with the fact that she and her family will own the house and not have to dwell in the tired, old apartment on Chicago's south side. In a sense, Mama's dream has Ã¢â¬Å"crusted and sugared over like a sugary sweetÃ¢â¬ (Hughes Lines 7-8). Her dream has changed to fit the circumstances she must cope with. The character of Mama represents those who do not shrivel up and die just because their dream does. Walter Lee Younger, Lena's son, is second only to Lena in arousing sympathy and pathos from the audience. The entire play shows the development of Walter's quest for manhood. Similar to Lena, Walter's dream of owning a liquor store becomes hindered by his economic station, or lack of money, and his social position. In the opening scenes of A Raisin in the Sun, Walter does not occupy the position of head of the household. This secondary position to Mama demonstrates his frustration with his limiting environment, and even Walter's job show subservience and inequality as a chauffeur to wealthy white people. Elizabeth Phillips comments, Ã¢â¬Å"Consequently, he [Walter] is forever on the lookout for a means of making more money, not only to enable him to give luxuries as well as necessities, but also to satisfy the deep inner need of every man to prove that he is capable of great achievementÃ¢â¬ (54). Walter's great achievement appears as a failure at first before revealing the man that he has become. The destruction of Walter's first and superficial dream of owning a liquor store perpetuates Walter's downfall. This symbolizes Langston Hughes' question, Ã¢â¬Å"Does it [a dream deferred] stink like rotten meat? Ã¢â¬Å": (Line 6). The death of Walter's dream occurs when Willy Harris disappears with Walter's and Bobo's money. Walter finally understands Lena's sacrifice for him and the family with the words, Ã¢â¬Å"That money is made out of my father's fleshÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ (Hansberry 1747). Walter's lost dream rots his strength until he sinks to his lowest point in the play: Walter plans to accept the money from Mr. Lindner in return for agreement not to move into the house in Clybourne Park. Ã¢â¬Å"But in the ultimate test, Walter Lee cannot sell his own soulÃ¢â¬ (Phillips 55). The pride of both Walter and the family makes it impossible for Walter to accept Mr. Lindner's offer. Walter's final stand made to Mr. Lindner provokes Lena to announce to the family that Walter Lee has Ã¢â¬Å"finally come into his manhoodÃ¢â¬ (Hansberry 1757). Walter lee Younger represents those who rise above their own weaknesses even after all the dreams they work for have been deferred. The character of Beneatha Younger illustrates the best-educated member of the Younger family. Beneatha dreams of becoming a doctor. This dream originates from a childhood experience where a playmate injured himself while sledding, but a doctor was able to save him, with only a small scar left as evidence of the accident. This left Beneatha with the determination to learn medicine. Beneatha's obstacles differ greatly from both Walter's and Lena's. First, Beneatha is only twenty years old, and attractive. Women such as Beneatha were expected to marry and have children, not become a doctor or have any education pasts that of high school. Second, Beneatha's extreme naivete towards the world around her affects her perception of her family's and Asagai's actions and words. When Beneatha learns of Walter's loss of the money, she calls into question whether she will ever be a doctor. Mama reassures her that she will, God willing. Beneatha responds by blaspheming God. The deferment of Beneatha's dream causes her faith to Ã¢â¬Å"fester like a sore and then runÃ¢â¬ (Hughes Lines 4-5). Beneatha's faith had not wavered before, but now that all she has ever wanted is precariously hanging in the balance, she questions if God exists at all and that maybe it is man Ã¢â¬Å"who makes miracles,Ã¢â¬ referring sarcastically to her brother's grievous mistake. Beneatha feels that all that she has worked for since she was a child has been stolen from her. This burden of doubt, Ã¢â¬Å"sags like a heavy loadÃ¢â¬ (Lines 9-10). However, Joseph Asagai offers the solution of coming with him to Nigeria and becoming a doctor there, which fulfills both of her dreams of finding her African heritage and becoming a physician. Beneatha demonstrates her immaturity be her naive interpretations of Asagai's actions and words (Phillips 59). She misunderstands Asagai's proposal of marriage, and is unable to give the man who loves her so much and understands her so well a concrete answer. Beneatha's complex character reveals another hidden quality towards the conclusion of the play. After Walter's confrontation with Mr. Lindner, Mr. Lindner states pompously, Ã¢â¬Å"I take it then that you have decided to occupyÃ¢â¬ (Hansberry 1756). The simplicity of Beneatha's reply is illustrates in the statement, Ã¢â¬Å"That is what the man saidÃ¢â¬ (1756). Beneatha executes an ironic reversal where she refers to Walter as Ã¢â¬Ëthe man' and not the white Mr. Lindner. Hansberry indicates with the previous statement that Beneatha has the capacity to recognize greatness in others as well as the ability to respond with warmth and love to words and acts of family pride and dignity. Beneatha still encompasses some immaturity, but she shows great potential for good. Beneatha Younger symbolizes the immature person whose dreams are not completely decimated. The strength of character against social and economic hardships produce dreams that have the potential to prosper. The affects of a dream deferred vary intensely from person to person, as seen in the variety of characterization in the Younger family. Lorraine Hansberry draws a vivid description of the influence a dream can have on human beings. Similarly, Langston Hughes' poem Harlem depicts how human beings react when a dream dies. Edward J. Mullen notes that Hughes' poem represents the idea that, Ã¢â¬Å"the inhabitants of this 1951 Harlem seem to be seeking feverishly and forlornly for some simple yet apparently unattainable satisfaction in lifeÃ¢â¬ (142). Both Hansberry's play and Hughes' poem establish a powerful and human reaction to the death of a dream. The eloquence and reality of this is believable and almost felt personally by the reader due to the excellent use of symbolism, imagery, and other literary devices by each author. It is very easy to see how these two literary works are similar since they re dealing with exactly the same theme; i. e. that of the dream deferred. However, remarkably there are also several differences. Since the poem by Hughes is of modest length, there are not nearly as many literary devices used for this type of literary work. However, it is the more powerful of the two in bringing the message across because you feel the same feelings after reading it even though it takes merely seconds to finish. Hansberry takes us through a heart-felt journey in which she hones her writing skills and uses several literary devices such as characterization, irony, and climax. She has a protagonist and antagonist, a setting, and makes use of allegory where Ã¢â¬Å"every aspect of a story is representative, usually symbolic, of something else, usually a larger abstract concept or important historical/geopolitical event. Ã¢â¬ (Braiman) A Raisin in the Sun provides a compelling allegory of human nature, illustrating choices made and the consequences of such choices through its sharply-defined characters. Clearly these two literary works have similar as well as different aspects. They both include mood, tone, similar themes, and symbolism, and yet they both are introduced to the reader in very different ways. These works, although written many years before some of the people who read them, are very important to the literary canon today. They represent something that is still a part of our culture today, and they are very useful references to show how an author can use many different literary devices to capture the same initial theme when writing, especially since they are two totally different types of literary work; i. e. that of poetry and plays. It should be Ã¢â¬Å"required readingÃ¢â¬ for any professor teaching the techniques of writing when teaching about literary devices and how they are used. Bibliography Hansberry Lorraine. A Raisin in the Sun.  Literature. 5th ed. Eds. James N. N. Pickering and Jeffery D. Hoeper. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice, O. 1700-57. Hughes, Langston. Ã¢â¬Å"Harlem. Ã¢â¬  Literature. 5th ed. Eds. James H. Pickering and Jeffery D. Hoeper. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice, 1027-28. Mullen, Edward J. Critical Essays on Langston Hughes. Boston: G. K. Hall, 142. Phillips, Elizabeth C. The Works of Lorraine Hansberry. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1973. 48-62. Braiman, Jay. Ã¢â¬Å"Mr. BraimanÃ¢â¬â¢s English Online. Ã¢â¬ http://mrbraiman. hom. att. net/lit. htm.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
WHO NEEDS TO GET MULTI SKILLED? It is important to understand who needs to get multi-skilled. Do they need to be at a particular level or position, or doing a specific work? Interestingly, most experts do believe that being multi-skilled is level-agnostic. People trained in technical skills however need to have mastery over more than one platform necessitated on account of the high level of obsolescence in the field. The non-technical staff can be trained in support functions to save an organization considerable cost. Training should preferably be in related/adjacent fields, so that the existing skills of the employees are appropriately leveraged. Ã¢â¬Å"Moreover, as these employees move into managerial or lead positions, knowledge of relatedÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Such a workforce would be self-managed and flexible according to the requirements of the company. From the perspective of the employee, multi-tasking would allow them to become diversified and maintain high levels of motivation and enthusiasm. It would also allow the employees to get involved in the various aspects of the functioning, work, etc., of their company, allowing them to be more involved in the performance of their firm and contributing in preventing lay-offs as well. There are many who believe that multi-skilled employees are a great asset to an organization, irrespective of industry conditions. In leaner times, a multi-skilled workforce helps bring in operational efficiency and increased productivity, since a smaller workforce is required to cater to the scaled down demand. But even when economic conditions are on the upswing, a multi-skilled workforce helps in addressing customer demand faster and better. If an employee enhances his skill sets, albeit in a phased manner, he will be far more valuable to his company and the company will be a more potent force in the market. Not only is this relevant in a recession, but also in a booming economy where companies compete to attract and retain the best business. TECHNIQUE OF MULTI-SKILLINGShow MoreRelatedHow Training and Development Helps in Competitive Advantage1594 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesinnovation and fierce competitiveness have raised issues of survival, effectiveness, sustainability, etc. Increasing demand for skilled performers and increasing high attrition of capable workforce forced the companies to shift focus on attracting and retaining high-performing employees in the extremely competitive business environment. 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