Friday, December 27, 2019

Adidas Essay - 2734 Words

How Adidas Aims to Get Its Cool Back - WSJ Page 1 of 10 This copy is for your personal, non-commercial use only. To order presentation-ready copies for distribution to your colleagues, clients or customers visit EUROPEAN BUSINESS NEWS How Adidas Aims to Get Its Cool Back The German sports brand wants to end its long U.S. slump ByELLEN EMMERENTZE JERVELL andSARA GERMANO Updated March 22, 2015 9:21 p.m. ET Adidas AG notched a big win when it signed a deal in January to sponsor University of Miami sports. The school had been rival Nike Inc.’s turf for decades, a perfect place to show that Adidas’s new U.S. chief was breaking its long†¦show more content†¦Last year, Adidas fell to No. 3 in the U.S. behind Under Armour Inc. in retail sales of sports apparel and footwear, according to Sterne Agee and SportScanInfo. â€Å"When Herbert took over, America was a problem,† says Christophe Bezu, former head of Adidas Asia Pacific, who left in 2011 after almost 24 years with the company. â€Å"America has always been a problem, and despite serious efforts nobody has been able to fix it.† Mr. Hainer declines to be interviewed. In a financial presentation this month, he said Adidas â€Å"underperformed in North America and we are all disappointed.† A Run Through Adidas History in Photos  » Adidas’s race in today’s competitive sportswear market, with help from stars like Kanye West, harks back to Jesse Owens’s running shoes in the 1936 Berlin Olympics. 1of 8 Adidas was founded in 1949 by German athlete and shoemaker Adolf Dassler. ADIDAS Mr. Hainer wants to reboot in the U.S. with Mr. King, an Adidas-group veteran who took over North American operations last June. Mr. King, an American, says headquarters in Herzogenaurach, Germany, has given him more leeway than to predecessors to craft a U.S.-specific strategy. America is â€Å"a very different mind-set from Germany,† Mr. King says. â€Å"That’s really the epiphany.† MoreRelatedAdidas956 Words   |  4 Pagesadidas AG (German pronunciation: [ˈadiËÅ'das]) is a German multinational corporation that designs and manufactures sports clothing and accessories based in Herzogenaurach, Bavaria, Germany. Frequently mispronounced as (German pronunciation: [ ˈadIËÅ'dÉ ÃŒ ¯s]). It is the holding company for the Adidas Group, which consists of the Reebok sportswear company, TaylorMade-Adidas golf company (including Ashworth), Rockport, and 9.1% of FC Bayern Munich. Besides sports footwear, Adidas also produces other productsRead MoreAdidas : Adidas Current Official Logo1887 Words   |  8 Pages Introduction:- Adidas Group, a German multinational corporation that designs and manufactures sports shoes, clothing and accessories based in Herzogenaurach, Bavaria, Germany. Adidas was founded in 1948 by Adolf Dassler, following the split of Gebrà ¼der Dassler Schuhfabrik between him and his older brother Rudolf. It offers its products through three brands, including adidas, TaylorMade-adidas Golf, and Reebok. The company operates in Europe, the Americas and Asia. Adidas is the largest sportswearRead MoreAdidas : Brand Review : Adidas1461 Words   |  6 PagesINTRODUCTION Adidas is a sportswear manufacturing company started by Adolf Dassler. Adidas group has incorporated brands including Adidas, Reebok, TaylorMade-Adidas and Rockport. The wings of the company are widespread and have assimiliated other productions including handbags, shirts, spectacles, watches, balls, and sportswear. Adidas is being the largest company that sells footwear in the European market and have achieved a momentous market share at the global platform. Adidas has achieved phenomenalRead MoreAdidas2026 Words   |  9 PagesIntroduction Adidas is a company that manufactures shoes and sport apparel. The founder is Adolf Dassler who is German. The name created by combination of the name and surname Adi Dassler, who started producing shoes in 1920s with the help of his brother Rudolf Dassler. That make costumer, to recognize Adidas is three parallel stripes of the same color. Slogan: â€Å"IMPOSSIBLE IS NOTHING† 1. History 1949-2005 Due to the death of Adolf’s son (Horst Dassler), the Company was bought in 1990 by BernardRead MoreAdidas2393 Words   |  10 PagesPRODUCTS Running Adidas currently manufactures several running shoes, including the adiStar Control 5, the adiStar Ride (the replacement for the adiStar Cushion 6), the Supernova Sequence (the replacement for the Supernova Control 10), and the Supernova Cushion 7 (which will soon be replaced by the Supernova Glide), among others. In addition, their performance apparel is widely used by runners. Adidas also uses kangaroo leather to make their more expensive shoes. Association football One of theRead MoreScale of Adidas1886 Words   |  8 PagesAdidas: Strengths -Strong success in Europe -High-performance products -Recent selling of subsidiary â€Å"dog† Salomon -In many invents is the biggest sponsor -Strong management team. -Strong control over its own distribution channel. -In the soccer industry, it has a stronghold. -No bad reputation like child labour or environment pollution. -Diversity and variety in products offered. -Strong financial position with minimal long term debts -Innovative designs in footwear enabling consumersRead MoreThe Success of Adidas1056 Words   |  5 PagesTHE HUMBLE SUCCESS OF ADIDAS Nowadays, the value of sports has been increasing more and more. So, it is important to have a good quality brands for the sportsmen to wear and equipments to use. Adidas is one of the most famous companies for producing the most quality sport goods. â€Å"Many people believe that the name Adidas is an acronym that stands for all day I dream about sports. This idea has been popularly passed around for many years, but it is utterly false. While it may be used that wayRead MoreAdidas and Nike1270 Words   |  6 PagesADIDAS AND NIKE Nike and Adidas are two the largest sportswear companies of nowadays. They are the giants in the sportswear industry, which always introduce innovative products, in order to become the ultimate market leaders. Nike is an American multinational corporation, which produces footwear, clothes, equipment and other active sport items (Feifer 2014). The company was founded in 1964 by Phil Knight and Bill Bowerman. Nike uses specific method of advertising, which differentiates it fromRead MoreAdidas Paper: Adolf Adi Dassler Is The Founder of Adidas973 Words   |  4 PagesFor Adidas, the beginning was with shoes. â€Å"Shoes to play in, shoes to play better in, shoes to win in.† Shoes that, one day would go on to be worn by champions that would win trophies and medals, shoes that would break impossible records. Athletes of all kinds would wear them and create magic wearing them. Today, Adidas is one of the world’s leading brands, recognized and respected. In 1925, in a small German village, the world got its first taste of Adidas. It was there, in a village by the nameRead MoreAdidas Group1992 Words   |  8 Pageswith a reputable company. Having played soccer through college and two years after Adidas is a company I am very familiar with. Additionally, TaylorMade is part of the Adidas Group. I am an avid golfer who refuses to play anything but TaylorMade and have a fair amount of knowledge about their company and products. Additionally, I am considering employment with the Adidas Group after completing of my MBA. Adidas has a very interesting history. In 1925 Adolf â€Å"Adi† Dassler designed his first pair

Thursday, December 19, 2019

The Lovers, Thinkers, And Problem Solvers Of The World

Humans: The Lovers, Thinkers, and Problem Solvers of the World Throughout the history of mankind we have constantly asked ourselves what our purpose is and if that purpose has meaning. Philosophers and religious leaders alike have answered these questions and many other essential questions that cross through our minds at one point or another. However, we as individuals must consider the answers proposed by others, and use their ideas as a foundation for the building of our own. By using the ideas that Dante, Soyinka, Shelly, and Borges propose in their literature I was able to build a foundation for my own answer to the question of what our purpose is and if there is any meaning to our lives. I feel that our purpose is too†¦show more content†¦While the birth of his son was not conventional either, after his son is released onto the world â€Å"the purpose of his life had been fulfilled† (Borges, page 6). After the Wizard has created his son his purpose has been fulfilled. Th e wizard, like the Creature, like the entire species of man, all have one purpose in life which is to ensure the continuation of their species. In a world where every species has the same purpose, what makes our lives meaningful? I find the answer to be faith and religion. Faith and religion helps us make morally correct choices. When we have faith and follow a religion we try to have morals and learn things that help us make morally correct choices. We learn the difference between right and wrong, develop a conscience, and develop tolerance and respect for the people around us. An example of how a lack of religion and faith leads to people making morally wrong choices and not being tolerant or respectful for the people around them, can be seen in Death and the King’s Horseman. In this play, the Pilkings have no religion and have faith in nothing. Because of this they are intolerant of the local’s religion. Their disrespect shows when Amusa, a local who has converted t o Christianity, refuses to talk to them until they remove the religious clothing which they are disrespecting: â€Å"Mista Pirinkin†¦take it off†¦ is not god† (Soyinka, Act I, sceneShow MoreRelatedTheu.s. Bush s No Child Left Behind1378 Words   |  6 Pagesimplementation across the nation. According to the official Common Core website, â€Å"Common Core is a set of high-quality academic standards in mathematics and English language arts/literacy (ELA)† (p. 1). Judson Kempson (2015), author of Star-Crossed Lovers: The Department of Education and the Common Core, says â€Å"after validation and input from educators, the final version of the Common Core State Standards were released in the spring of 2010† (p. 3). After being released â€Å"state superintendents then broughtRead MoreA Farewell Of Arms Hemingway1287 Words   |  6 Pagesof her fiancà © that leaves her so vulnerable to the advances of a man. Therefore, as soon as she meets Henry it’s not technically love at first sight due to her hesitation, but something that would give her a distraction from what’s going on in the world around them. She allows herself to be molded to â€Å"fit† his wants and needs giving herself entirely into the relationship. However, she doesnâ€℠¢t allow herself to be disillusioned that anything more can come from what they have. Having lost her fianceRead MoreEssay 1 - Role of the Educator3727 Words   |  15 Pagescentric method of education which eventually helps the child to unfold his hidden potentialities. Dr. Montessori left the world a wonderful legacy: a philosophy of life, a unique method of education, which gives children the best possible foundation of life. Thus, her method has become a part of every teacher training course. Her success was so great that she travelled the world establishing schools and lecturing about her discoveries. Her books have been translated in 22 languages and have been appreciatedRead MoreEssay 1 - Role of the Educator3721 Words   |  15 Pagescentric method of education which eventually helps the child to unfold his hidden potentialities. Dr. Montessori left the world a wonderful legacy: a philosophy of life, a unique method of education, which gives children the best possible foundation of life. Thus, her method has become a part of every teacher training course. Her success was so great that she travelled the world establishing schools and lecturing about her discoveries. Her books have been translated in 22 languages and have been appreciatedRead MorePlenary Session69346 Words   |  278 Pagesdeal with things according to how you feel about them, or how they fit into your personal value system. Your secondary mode is internal, where you take things in primarily via your intuition. ENFJs are people-focused individuals. They live in the world of people possibilities. More so than any other type, they have excellent people skills. They understand and care about people, and have a special talent for bringing out the best in others. ENFJ s main interest in life is giving love, support, andRead MoreHbr When Your Core B usiness Is Dying74686 Words   |  299 PagesTHOU SHALT †¦page 58 James P. Hackett 111 TOOL KIT The Process Audit Michael Hammer 124 BEST PRACTICE Human Due Diligence David Harding and Ted Rouse 138 144 EXECUTIVE SUMMARIES PANEL DISCUSSION There are 193 countries in the world. None of them are energy independent. So who’s holding whom over a barrel? The fact is, the vast ma jor the few energy-producin ity of countries rely on g nations that won the geological lottery, ble ssing them with abunda nt hydrocarbons. And

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Employ Motivation Organizational Effective -Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: Discuss About The Employ Motivation Organizational Effective? Answer: Introduction With time and dynamics in the international commercial scenario, there have been considerable modifications in the way of doing businesses across the globe. With Globalization and a more inclusive global business set up, the industries have become more integrated and their operational structures have also become complicated and multi-dimensional (Wild, Wild Han, 2014). The businesses, nowadays, not only face competitions from their domestic rivals but also from the similar companies operating in other countries, due to increased ease of import and export of not only goods and services but also resources of production, labor being one of the primary ones. Keeping this into consideration, the organizations have been incorporating different strategies in their operational framework, with the objective of maintaining a stable, productive and efficient employee base, which in turn contributes to long term profitability and sustainability of the companies, by helping them gaining cost effectiveness, advantages in productivity and an edge over their competitors. These operations of the companies fall under the domain of Human Resource Management department of the companies (Cavusgil, Ghauri Akcal, 2012). Of the different roles of the human resource departments of the commercial institutions across the world, one of the primary one is to keep the employees motivated to work efficiently and to encourage to keep them dedicated to the company through all thick and thins. Keeping this into consideration, the report tries to discuss the strategies taken by the companies across the global for maintaining a productive and sustaining employee base. For studying the same, the report takes reference of an article by Kris Carlon, on the recent strategy taken by the tech giant, Samsung in the aspect of human resource management (Jiang et al., 2012). The report analyzes and tries to interpret the same using the Strategic Human Resource Management Framework. Summary of the Article For the purpose of studying the implications of strategies taken in the human resource management framework, in the real world scenario, the article refers to the article, by Kris Carlon, published in Android Authority, on January 27th, 2016. The article specifically highlights the case of Samsung Mobiles in the year 2015 (Carlon, 2018). The international tech giant, had not received expected profitability from their mobile division in 2015, much of which can be attributed to the strict and continually increasing competition which the company have been facing in the recent times with the entry of many international mobile producing companies, some of which are most cost efficient than the company itself. However, in spite of the poor performance of the mobile division, the company decided to pay extremely high bonuses to their employees working in this division, especially, with the highest capping of their bonus framework being 50% of the individual salaries of the respective employees. As the article suggests, the company had done this, mainly to encourage the employees of the mobile division and to keep them working with increased enthusiasm, to overcome the slowdown in the profitability of the concerned sector (Janeczko, 2017). The company, however, have not been equally giving for all the sectors, as not all the sectors received such high bonuses, which primarily includes the battery division of the company (receiving only 3% as their bonus) and the electronics sector (receiving only 10%), both the sectors being moderately profitable in the contemporary periods. These are considerably lower compared to the bonus received by the less productive mobile division of the company (Berman et al., 2012). The only sectors, which got bonuses comparable to that of the mobile sector, were the semiconductor division and the software and psychology sector, both of which have been highly productive and profitable. Implications of Rewarding Strategy taken by Samsung Mobiles From the above summary of the concerned article, it can be asserted that Samsung had resorted to reward the employees of the mobile division in spite of the fact that the division did not perform as efficiently and productively as it was expected to and lagged behind sectors like semiconductors and technology sector of the company (Lee Jung, 2015). However, other sectors like battery division got much lower bonuses. There can be several reasons behind such discrete rewarding strategies taken by the company in 2015, which can be highlighted and explained in the lights of the exiting theoretical frameworks present in the Strategic Human Resource Management scenario in the global framework (Singer, 2012). Keeping this into consideration, the following section of the report tries to explore the theories and concepts, which exist in the domain of human resource management in the global framework. It also tries to link the same with the current issue of consideration, that is the rewarding mechanism of Samsung, thereby analyzing the implications of such a strategy on the employees of the company and the company itself and also identifying the issues of concern within the strategic framework of the company. Rewarding workers: Human Resource Management Perspectives The concerned article highlights several bothering problems, which have been faced by the otherwise predominant player in the global tech market, Samsung, of which the primary one has been the problem of reduction in the revenue of the company, especially in several sectors, which primarily includes the mobile sector, as can be seen from the following figure: As is evident from the above diagram, in the last few years, there have been severe dynamics in the revenue generation of the different sectors of Samsung (Manzoor, 2012). However, barring the semi-conductor sector, whose profit has been increasing more or less consistently, the other sectors have seen reduction in their revenue generation, especially between 2013 and 2015, with the telecom sector being one of the prominent ones. One of the main reasons behind the same can be attributed to the increase in the popularity of other competitors and shift in the share of clientele to the other companies. In this context, the decision of the company to provide high bonus to the employees in its mobile section may have considerable implications on the performance of the sector as a whole, though it may seem to be irrational in the first look. The reasons behind implementation of such a strategy on part of Samsung can be explained with the help of Human Resource Management in the following sections (Wilkins, Thakur-Weigold Wagner, 2012). Possible reasons behind rewarding the employees There may be several reasons behind the strategy of rewarding the employees of the concerned company even though the profitability of the sector had been low. The primary reasons behind the same are as follows: Motivation of the employees One of the main requirements for the efficient working of the contemporary commercial companies is evidently the presence of a workforce, which is efficient, productive, innovative and dedicated. To stay constantly productive and efficient sufficient amount of motivation is required for the employees, which has to be provided by the companies themselves, for the vested interest of the companies themselves (Manzoor, 2012). This is because much of the competencies, efficiency, profitability and long-term prospects of the companies depend on the productivity and dedication of the workforce. The management of the workers falling under the domain of human resource department of any company, there are several measures and strategies are taken by the same for ensuring that the employees are motivated to work hard and contribute significantly in good as well as in bad phases of the company. This has to be done particularly by the HR department of the company so that the same sail swiftly through any kind of situations (Presslee, Vance Webb, 2013). One of the strategies which are most commonly incorporated by the human resource management of any company for the purpose of motivating their employees is the strategy of rewarding and recognizing the employees for their efforts. The recognition of the efforts put in by the employees of a company, in general has considerable positive implications in the aspect of motivating them as they feel appreciated and important for the company (Jiang et al., 2012). This in turn increased their incentive to work harder for the company, which reflects in their increased performances, which in turn has high probability of increasing the profitability and sustainability of the company itself. However, recognition of the efforts of employees being verbal and not adding to the materialistic welfare of the employees, it works only up to a certain extent and is not enough for the purpose of constant providing motivation of the employees. For this purpose, rewarding the employees can pose as a more effective strategy. These rewards, which the companies mostly provide to acknowledge the performances of their employees, come in cash or in kind. One of the most common ways of monetarily rewarding the employees is by providing them bonuses, which are in general paid as a percentage of the employees salary (Dobre, 2013). This framework is also followed by Samsung, as can be seen from the concerned article, with the percentages varying according to the level of performances of the different employees. This may have been one of the probable underlying reasons behind the strategy of the concerned company to reward their employees of the mobile division in spite of the decrease in the production of the same in 2015. Cash reward being mostly considered by the employees as the worth of their efforts, this might have helped the company to motivate their mobile division workers to keep on working harder and with more dedication to overcome the slowdown in its revenue generation. Management of performance of the employees One of the primary reasons for rewarding the employees in general, as can be seen to be done by Samsung in this case, apart from motivating them, is also to increase and enhance the performances of the same. As can be seen from the above figure, work stress in Samsung is higher compared to the level of satisfaction in the same workplace. The level of stress is also higher compared to similar companies in the global framework. This, clubbed with the high competition, which the mobile division of the company has been facing in the recent periods, could probably effect the performance of the employees negatively. Keeping this in consideration, one of the primary and effective strategies, which can be taken to enhance the performance of the employees in the otherwise stressful environment, is by providing them financial rewards for their efforts. Employee Retention Another probable reason behind the bonus paid by Samsung to the employees of its mobile division in spite of their comparatively poor performance is to retain them in the company itself and give them incentives to work harder staying in the company (Edirisooriyaa, 2014). This is highly relevant in the contemporary global business scenarios as with increased number of supply side players in the market, the demand for labors, especially skilled labors has also been consistently increasing. This increases the number of job opportunities in the hands of the employees and can increase the risk of resignations and layoffs of considerable number of employees if they are not paid appropriately and if they are not given enough incentive to stay back in the company (Das Baruah, 2013). As can be seen from the above figure, in spite of the poor performance of the mobile division, the company did not experience a major decrease in their employee strength. This may be because of the fact that the company tries to retain the employees by providing them incentives and encouragements in the forms of financial incentives and bonuses, even when the company does not generate high revenue. The action of the company can be thus justified from the perspective of employee retention (Terera Ngirande, 2014). Conclusion One of the problems, which can arise from the incentive structure of the company, is the problem of the feeling of discrimination among the workers of the different divisions of the company. The battery division got only 3% bonus in spite of being moderately productive whiles the mobile employees got much higher bonus. This may create the notion that the company values the mobile division much more than the battery division. Keeping this into consideration the company needs to redesign their bonus structure in such a way that the employees in all the divisions feel motivated and feel that their efforts are appreciated. This, if designed and implemented efficiently on part of the company, can help in building up a loyal, dedicated, motivated and productive workforce, which in turn can considerably contribute in the long term profitability and sustainability of the company, giving them an edge over their competitors. References Berman, E. M., Bowman, J. S., West, J. P., Van Wart, M. R. (2012). Human resource management in public service: Paradoxes, processes, and problems. Sage. Carlon, K. (2018).Samsung rewards Mobile division employees despite poor performance in 2015.Android Authority. Retrieved 31 January 2018, from Cavusgil, S. T., Ghauri, P. N., Akcal, A. A. (2012).Doing business in emerging markets. Sage. (2018).96 percent of Facebook workers are extremely happy with their job.Mail Online. Retrieved 2 February 2018, from Das, B. L., Baruah, M. (2013). Employee retention: A review of literature.Journal of Business and Management,14(2), 8-16. Dediu, H. (2018).Samsungs profit center.Asymco. Retrieved 2 February 2018, from Dobre, O. I. (2013). Employee motivation and organizational performance.Tabel of Contents. Edirisooriyaa, W. A. (2014, February). Impact of Rewards on Employee Performance: With Special Reference to ElectriCo. InProceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Management and Economics(Vol. 26, p. 27). Janeczko, S. (2017). Samsung Technical and Fundamental Analysis. Jiang, K., Lepak, D. P., Han, K., Hong, Y., Kim, A., Winkler, A. L. (2012). Clarifying the construct of human resource systems: Relating human resource management to employee performance.Human resource management review,22(2), 73-85. Jiang, K., Lepak, D. P., Hu, J., Baer, J. C. (2012). How does human resource management influence organizational outcomes? A meta-analytic investigation of mediating mechanisms.Academy of management Journal,55(6), 1264-1294. Lee, K., Jung, M. (2015). Overseas factories, domestic employment, and technological hollowing out: a case study of Samsungs mobile phone business.Review of World Economics,151(3), 461-475. Manzoor, Q. A. (2012). Impact of employees motivation on organizational effectiveness.Business management and strategy,3(1), 1. Presslee, A., Vance, T. W., Webb, R. A. (2013). The effects of reward type on employee goal setting, goal commitment, and performance.The Accounting Review,88(5), 1805-1831. Richter, F. (2018).Infographic: Samsung's Profit Growth Is Coming Back to Earth.Statista Infographics. Retrieved 2 February 2018, from Singer, N. (2012). Youve won a badge (and now we know all about you).New York Times,4. (2018).Topic: Samsung Retrieved 31 January 2018, from Terera, S. R., Ngirande, H. (2014). The impact of rewards on job satisfaction and employee retention.Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences,5(1), 481. Wild, J. J., Wild, K. L., Han, J. C. (2014).International business. Pearson Education Limited. Wilkins, R., Thakur-Weigold, B., Wagner, S. M. (2012). Managing demand uncertainty.Industrial Engineer,44(8).

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Management Role free essay sample

The ten roles explored in this theory have extensive explanations which are briefly developed here: * Figurehead: All social, inspiration, legal and ceremonial obligations. In this light, the manager is seen as a symbol of status and authority. * Leader: Duties are at the heart of the manager-subordinate relationship and include structuring and motivating subordinates, overseeing their progress, promoting and encouraging their development, and balancing effectiveness. * Liaison: Describes the information and communication obligations of a manager. One must network and engage in nformation exchange to gain access to knowledge bases. * Monitor: Duties include assessing internal operations, a departments success and the problems and opportunities which may arise. All the information gained in this capacity must be stored and maintained. * Disseminator: Highlights factual or value based external views into the organisation and to subordinates. This requires both filtering and delegation skills. * Spokesman: Serves in a PR capacity by informing and lobbying others to keep key stakeholders updated about the operations of the organisation. We will write a custom essay sample on Management Role or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Entrepreneur: Roles encourage managers to create improvement projects and work o delegate, empower and supervise teams in the development process. * Disturbance handler: A generalist role that takes charge when an organisation is unexpectedly upset or transformed and requires calming and support. * Resource Allocator: Describes the responsibility of allocating and overseeing financial, material and personnel resources. * Negotiator: Is a specific task which is integral for the spokesman, figurehead and resource allocator roles. As a secondary filtering, Mintzberg distinguishes these roles by their responsibilities towards information. Interpersonal roles, categorised as the fgurehead, leader and liason, provide nformation. Informational roles link all managerial work together by processing information. These roles include the monitor, the disseminator and the spokesperson. All the remaining roles are decisional, in that they use information and make decisions on how information is delivered to secondary parties. Generalist and specialist management The core of Mitzbergs Ten Managerial Roles is that managers need to be both organisational generalists and specialists. This is due to three reasons: * External frustrations including operational imperfections and environmental pressures. * Authority disputes which upset even basic routines. The expected fallibility of the individual and human, manager. Mintzbergs summary statement may be that the role of a manager is quite varied and contradictory in its demands, and that it is therefore not always the lack of managerial prowess, but the complexity of individual situations demanding a variety of roles, which troubles todays manager. The ten roles, therefore, can be applied to any managerial situation where an examination of the levels to which a manager uses each of the ten roles at his or her disposal is required Written by: Monica Kenney Business Organizations A manager in an organisation is not always a leader. Management and leadership are two different concepts, though often appear to overlap. Modern organisations tend to be complex and operate in a global business environment. Therefore, there is renewed focus on the importance of management and leadership and their distinctive roles in promoting and advancing the interests of the organisation. Hard competition and continuous pressures for change demand that managers and leaders work closely together for achieving business goals. On the practical level, a manager is called upon to evince the quality of leadership nd a leader the knack for managing difficult situations in their respective roles in any organisation. Pragmatically speaking, then, the distinction between a manager and leader is not problematic. A manager is often portrayed as a procedural administrator/supervisor†an individual in an organisation with recognized formal authority who plans, coordinates and implements the existing directions of the organisation (Koontz et al, 1986). A leader, on the other hand, is defined as someone who occupies a position of influence within a group that extends beyond supervisory responsibility and forma l authority (Vecchio et al. 994: 504) and is involved in devising new directions and leading followers to attain group, organisational and societal goals (Avery 1990: 453). This distinction between the supervisory manager and visionary leader has to be understood in terms of their respective tasks and functions. Dunsford, a management guru, believes that management is concerned with efficiency†with tasks such as coordinating resources and implementing policy, while leadership has to concern itself with effectiveness of making decisions, setting directions and principles, formulating issues and grappling with problems. Katz (1974: 90-102), however, has identified three critical managerial skills and the last two happen to be attributes of competent leadership. These are: technical skills (the ability to perform particular tasks or activities); interpersonal skills (the ability to work well with other people); and conceptual skills (the ability to see the big picture). Modern leadership theory supports an integrated approach to management and leadership. Early work on leadership identified the various styles of leadership based on personal traits and behaviour of an effective leader, such as drive, desire to lead, ecisiveness, honesty and integrity, self-confidence, intelligence, Job relevant knowledge (Kirkpatrick and Locke 1991 : 48-60). The behaviourist models focused on the relationship between a leaders actions and their impact on the attitudes and performance of employees. These studies compared various styles of leadership, such as authoritarian and democratic styles. They studied if an effective leader was more prone to efficient accomplishment of a task rather than being inclined to the welfare of employees and subordinates. The ideal style, as proposed by Stogdill in 1974, combined the best of both approaches. In later work we find considerations of leadership theory as part of a wider approach to modern management. The traditional distinctions between a manager and leader is disappearing. Modern enveloping financial crisis show. Accordingly, the role of a manager demands flexibility, dynamism, management skills as well as leadership quality.